Delivering the Compact: Towards a More Capable and Gender-Balanced EU Civilian CSDP

This SIPRI research paper examines the progress made in the secondment of personnel and representation of women in CSDP missions since the adoption of the 2018 Civilian CSDP Compact. Its analysis is supported by an extensive review of mission's human resources reports and gender-disaggregated statistics. Based on the current implementation of the 2018 Compact and its lessons learned, it provides recommendations for the 2023 CSDP Civilian Compact.

It assesses the progress made since the 2018 CSDP Civilian Compact, in which the EU Member States (EUMS) committed, inter alia, to increase share of seconded personnel in civilian CSDP missions to at least 70% and to promote better representation of women at all levels. Overall, the share of seconded personnel has decreased, reaching 60% by 2022, and there remain significant variations in burden-sharing between EU Member States. The representation of women has increased modestly in recent years, reaching 24% in 2022.

In view of the new CSDP Civilian Compact to be adopted by mid-2023, the author formulates recommendations to EU Member States and the EEAS. EUMS are recommended to increase their national contributions to civilian CSDP and in particular to aim for 40% women at all levels and gender parity in appointments to Heads of Mission and senior management positions. Moreover, the share of seconded staff should reach 70% at all levels and 100% in operational posts. It also encourages the EEAS to develop indicators and invest additional capacity in human resources databases, which are necessary to report and measure progress against any new targets. 

Reference: Smit, T. (2022). Delivering the Compact: Towards a More Capable and Gender-Balanced EU Civilian CSDP, SIPRI, Stockholm. DOI:


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